Workshop: Introduction to 3D CAD (with Fusion 360)
(Generally, this workshop is offered at least once every week on a rotating basis. Check the DaBL calendar for up-to-date availability!)
Fusion 360 is a Computer-aided design software package. It is parametric, which means that you can always go back and change parameters and the entire design will update to match. This wiki page is in no way exhaustive, therefore be sure to check out the help button in the top right of the Fusion 360
Create a pencil and paper drawing of your idea.
- Create a sketch
- Extrude the sketch into a body
- Modify the resulting body
- (Rinse and repeat)
Creating a sketch
Create a Normal Sketch Plane
Press the Create Sketch button in the top left of the tool bar. Then select the plane on which you would like to create a sketch. If there are no components to select a plane from, you must select a plane from the 3D space (X plane [red], Y plane [green], Z plane [blue]). It may be helpful to choose the initial orientation that best suits your preferences and your project. For example, if the component is relatively long and flat, it may be useful to start on the Z plane. In this scenario, you will create the sketch of the bottom or top surface.
If you'd like to create a sketch from a component that already exists...
Option 1: Press the Create Sketch button and select the surface of the component you'd like to make a sketch plane from. The surface will be highlighted a light yellow color.
Option 2: Right click on the surface you would like to draw on and select Create Sketch.
Sketch planes must be created from a 2D plane. In other words, the surface you choose must be flat if you do not create additional planes. To see advanced information about planes, see the appropriate Wiki page.
Perhaps as a starting exercise, create a simple shape on your newly made sketch plane. There are four main ways of selecting the line tool.
- Press the L key
- Click the line icon in the tool bar.
- Select line from the SKETCH drop down menu in the tool bar.
- Right click on a sketch to access the option wheel, then hover over sketch and then line with the mouse.
Select the line tool and draw a simple line. By default, you can see that the units are millimeters. Additionally, the dimension box is highlighted so any number typed while making the line changes the dimension instantly. Type in "5 in" and see what happens.
Fusion 360 interprets the inches as a unit of distance and converts it into millimeters. Although it is advised to use the metric system for ease of calculations, make sure you consider the tools you are using as well as any other software before making a definite decision on measurement units. Make a 100 mm x 100mm in square with these lines. Notice that the surface grid is also measured in mm. Also note that every left click creates a new line segment. To stop, either create a completed shape (denoted by an orange-colored fill) or right click and select Cancel on the option wheel.
If you started your square from the origin (0,0 on the sketch plane), you will notice that the two lines touching the origin are constrained (denoted by a black color). Conversely, the two lines not touching the origin are not constrained (denoted by a blue color). Constraints are characteristics of your sketch objects that limit movement and change. For example, if I give a line a vertical constraint, no further actions will change the orientation of that line. It will remain vertical. Logically, a sketch or shape is fully constrained when there can be no movement in the 2D space from further actions. Any attempt to move the sketch will move the entirety as long as it is not constrained to the origin. In order to learn the specifics of constraints it is recommended to play around with the sketch palette. It is a bar that appears on the right side of the screen and can be collapsed. All of the options on the sketch palette lock a characteristic of a line, point, angle, curve, or circle and help make drawing in Fusion much easier. You can make a line parallel, equal, or perpendicular to another. You can make a line horizontal to the origin or vertical, or make a point coincident (lie on top of) another point, as well as other constraints.
In order to change the dimension of a sketch curve, press D and then click on the line (or two lines to measure the space between) you want to size. Note that this adds a specific size constraint not shown in the sketch palette. You can input a dimension in a few different ways.
- Enter another dimension in the form of d1 or d2 to make a dependent dimension
- Enter a math expression
- Enter a number
In order to complete a sketch, click the "Stop Sketch" button on the tool bar.
Extruding a sketch
- Select sketch
- Select parameters
- Combining bodies
- Select object
- Select destination
In order to 3D print your design, the file must ideally be saved as an STL file. STL was not originally an acronym (several backronyms have been formed), although it is a shorthand for stereo-lithography CAD (computer assisted design). The STL file converts the design into a huge amount of tiny triangles. For more information visit the wikipedia page on STL files.
To save the design as a STL file, you can press the icon in the toolbar representing a 3D printer, above MAKE. After pressing the icon, the settings window pops up. It is recommended you keep the refinement HIGH and you do not send the file to any printing utility. Simply click OK and then determine where you want the file to be saved.
Sketching a Fidget Spinner steps
- Design fidget spinner, one hole in center and 3 polygons.
- Measure the size of the bearing with a set of calipers in mm.
- Create sketch dimension or press d.
- Click anywhere on the perimeter and then anywhere to stick the label and then 22mm, for example.
- What we made is a hole, so we should add some material to this. Under modify there is offset, click on the sketch curve that you would like to offset and offset position 4 mm, then click ok.
- Now we want the polygon to be symmetric to any line coming from the center of circle.
- Draw a line from origin along y-axis.
- Create line pressing L.
- The line is a sketch line, just using it as a reference, and we don't want it to be a feature of the sketch.
- In fusion a construction line is a reference feature.
- when the line is selected it turns dashed.
- Move it over by applying constraints, the constraint that we are looking for is a coincident constraint, the two points are coincident, select the two things you want to be coincident and then select coincident.
- Then we want a perpendicular constraint.
- Create sketch dimension and then 10 centimeters a side.
- At this point, it not fully constrained.
- Create dimension for the center line and extend it to the left.
- Offset for polygon 3mm.
- Circular pattern tool, objects you want to be created, drag select from left to right.
- Select the center point and and the triangle, you can change how far around the circle you would like to patter, just 3.
- Filet the edges.
- Option to rewind through time at the bottom left.
- Curve: 2D feature (line, spline, et al.) in a Sketch. A Closed Curve is one whose start and end points are at the same spot, and a closed curve creates a profile.
- Profile: 2D shape (circle, polygon, et al. created by a closed curve or set of curves.
- Feature: Geometry from which bodies can be created. Features usually include profiles.
- Path: 3D Curve
- Face: 3D Profile
- Body: 3D shape comprised of Faces and Edges
- Edge: 3D Path created by intersections of Faces
- Surface: A Face that need not be flat
Commonly Used Tools
- Select Tool: last icon to the right on top row with a mouse
- Allows one to grab and object
- Line (hot key: L)
- Creates a line of a certain length and angle from its origin
- Center Diameter Circle ( hot key: C)
- creates a circle of a given diameter
- Offset (hot key: O)
- After selecting an object it creates an outline around it a certain distance away
- Extrude ( hot key: E)
- Brings depth to a 2D object
- Circular Pattern:
- Duplicate faces, bodies, features around a center object
- Fillet (hot key: F) :
- rounds an edge at a given radius
- Fusion 360 Online Gallery
- Fusion 360 Youtube Channel
- Fusion 360 FAQ Learning and Support
- Learning Fusion 360 in 60 Minutes
By the end of this Workshop, you should:
- know that CAD stands for Computer-Aided Design.
- understand the 3-dimensional CAD process, from conception to export.
- be able to explain what parametricity means in the context of CAD.
- understand dimensions and constraints, and how they contribute to an object.
- know the difference between fillets and chamfers.
By the end of this Workshop, you should be able to:
- create a sketch with 2-dimensional features.
- constrain features of a 2-dimensional sketch to each other.
- use construction lines to relate features to each other.
- create a 3-dimensional body from a 2-dimensional sketch.
- modify an existing 3-dimensional body.